Friday, 1 February 2013

Top 20 Largest Dams in The World

1- Three Gorges Dam:

The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW). Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main turbines in the underground plant began production. Each main turbine has a capacity of 700 MW. The dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dam's 32 main turbines with two smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW. As well as producing electricity, the dam is intended to increase the Yangtze River's shipping capacity and reduce the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. The Chinese government regards the project as a historic engineering, social and economic success, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines, and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions. More details

2. Itaipu Dam:

The Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual energy generation, generating 98.3 TWh in 2012 and 98.6 TWh in 2013. It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Paraná River on the border section between the two countries, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW, with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 m. In 2008 the plant generated a record 94.68 TWh, supplying 90% of the electricity consumed by Paraguay and 19% of that consumed by Brazil. Of the twenty generator units currently installed, ten generate at 50 Hz for Paraguay and ten generate at 60 Hz for Brazil. Since the output capacity of the Paraguayan generators far exceeds the load in Paraguay, most of their production is exported directly to the Brazilian side. More details

3. Tucurui Dam:

The Tucuruí Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Tocantins River located on the Tucuruí County in the State of Pará, Brazil. The main purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power production and navigation. It is the first large-scale hydroelectric project in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The installed capacity of the 25-unit plant is 8,370 MW. Phase I construction began in 1975 and ended in 1984 while Phase II began in 1998 and ended in late 2010s. More details

4. Guri Dam:

The Guri Dam is a concrete gravity and embankment dam in Bolívar State, Venezuela on the Caroni River. It is 7,426 meters long and 162 m high. Construction began in 1963; the first part concluded in 1978 and the second in 1986. The Hydroelectric Power station Guri was constructed in the Necuima Canyon, 100 kilometers waters above of the mouth of the Caroní River in the Orinoco. There are two machine rooms with ten generators each, producing a total of 87 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. As of 2009, the hydroelectric plant is the third-largest in the world, with 10,200 MW capacity. More details

5. Fort Peck Dam:

The Fort Peck Dam is the highest of six major dams along the Missouri River, located in northeast Montana in the United States. At 6,409 m in length and over 76 m in height, it is the largest hydraulically filled dam in the United States, and creates Fort Peck Lake, the fifth largest man-made lake in the U.S., more than 210 km long, 200 61 m deep. The dam and 216 km long lake exist for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation, flood control, and water quality management. More details

6. Tarbela Dam:

Tarbela Dam on the Indus River in Pakistan is the largest earth filled dam in the world and second largest by structural volume. It is located in Haripur District, Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of Islamabad. The dam is 485 feet (148 m) high above the riverbed. The dam forms the Tarbela Reservoir, with a surface area of approximately 250-square-kilometre (97 sq mi). The dam was completed in 1974 and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control, and the generation of hydroelectric power. More details

7. Atatürk Dam:

The Atatürk Dam originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Built both to generate electricity and to irrigate the plains in the region, it was renamed in honour of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938), the founder of the Turkish Republic. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after the upfilling of the reservoir was completed in 1992, are operated by the State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). The reservoir created behind the dam, called Lake Atatürk Dam is the third largest in Turkey.More details

8. Grand Coulee Dam:

Grand Coulee Dam is a gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation. It was constructed between 1933 and 1942, originally with two power plants. A third power station was completed in 1974 to increase its energy production. It is the largest electric power-producing facility in the United States. More details

9. Oahe Dam:

The Oahe Dam is a large dam along the Missouri River, just north of Pierre, South Dakota in the United States. It creates Lake Oahe, the fourth largest artificial reservoir in the United States, which stretches 231 miles (372 km) up the course of the Missouri to Bismarck, North Dakota. The dam’s powerplant provides electricity for much of the north-central United States. It is named for the Oahe Indian Mission established among the Lakota Sioux in 1874. The project provides flood control, electric power, irrigation, and navigation benefits, estimated by the Corps of Engineers at $150,000,000 per year. More details

10. Mangla Dam:

Mangla Dam was constructed from 1961 to 1967 across the Jhelum River, about 67 miles (108 km) south-east of the Pakistani capital, Islamabad in Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The main structures of the dam include 4 embankment dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a 1,000 MW power station. The power station of Mangla dam consists of 10 units each having capacity of 100 MW. More details

11. Gardiner Dam:

The Gardiner Dam on the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan is the third largest embankment dam in Canada and one of the largest embankment dams in the world. Construction on Gardiner Dam and the smaller Qu'Appelle River Dam was started in 1959 and completed in 1967, creating Lake Diefenbaker upstream and diverting a considerable portion of the South Saskatchewan's flow into the Qu'Appelle River. The dam rises 64 metres in height, is almost 5 km long and has a width of 1.5 km at its base with a volume of 65,000,000 cubic meters. More details

12. Oroville Dam:

Oroville Dam is an earthfill embankment dam on the Feather River east of the city of Oroville, California in the United States. At 770 feet (230 m) high, it is the tallest dam in the U.S. and serves mainly for water supply, hydroelectricity generation and flood control. The dam impounds Lake Oroville, the second largest man-made lake in the state of California, capable of storing more than 3.5 million acre-feet (4.4 km3), and is located in the Sierra Nevada foothills east of the Sacramento Valley. More details

13. San Luis Dam:

San Luis Dam is a dam that creates San Luis Reservoir, which serves as an off-stream reservoir for the California State Water Project and the Central Valley Project. It is also known as the B.F. Sisk Dam, after Bernie Sisk. The earth-fill gravity embankment dam is 305 feet (93 m) tall and was completed in 1967. It is located between Los Banos, California and Gilroy, California, United States along Pacheco Pass. The plant's eight Francis turbines produce a combined 424 MW. More details

14. Nurek Dam:

The Nurek Dam is an earth fill embankment dam on the Vakhsh River in the central Asian nation of Tajikistan. Construction of the dam began in 1961 and was completed in 1980, when Tajikistan was still a republic within the Soviet Union. At 300 m (984 ft) it is currently the tallest man-made dam in the world. A total of nine hydroelectric Francis turbines are installed in the Nurek Dam. Originally having a generating capacity of 305 megawatts each (2.745 gigawatts total), they have since been redesigned and retrofitted such that they now combine to produce 3.015 gigawatts. More details

15. Samara / Zhiguli Dam:

Samara Dam is a large dam and hydroelectric station on the Volga River, located near Zhigulyovsk and Tolyatti in Samara Oblast of Russia. It is the sixth stage of the Volga-Kama Cascade of dams, and the second of them by installed power. The dam is 2800 m long, 750 m wide and 52 m high and the installed power is 2315 MW. More details

16. Garrison Dam:

Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota. At over two miles (3 km) in length, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1947-53. The reservoir impounded by the dam is Lake Sakakawea, which extends to Williston and the confluence with the Yellowstone River, near the Montana border. Hydropower turbines at Garrison Dam have an electric power generating nameplate capacity of 583.3 megawatts. Average production of 240 megawatts serves several hundred thousand customers. More details

17. Cochiti Dam:

The Cochiti Dam is an earthen fill dam located on the Rio Grande in Sandoval County, New Mexico. Cochiti Dam is one of the four United States Army Corps of Engineers projects for flood and sediment control on the Rio Grande system, operating in conjunction with Abiquiu Dam, Galisteo Dam and Jemez Canyon Dam. Cochiti Dam is primarily a flood control dam built to ameliorate the effects of heavy run off. The dam and the resultant lake also had the secondary purposes of creating recreational and wildlife habitat resources. The outlet works of the dam are capable of 14,790 feet3/s (418.8 m3/s) of outflow. More details

18. Aswan High Dam:

Aswan High Dam is an embankment dam situated across the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. Since the 1950s, the name commonly refers to the High Dam. Construction of the High Dam became a key objective of the Egyptian Government following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, as the ability to control floods, provide water for irrigation, and generate hydroelectricity were seen as pivotal to Egypt's industrialization. The High Dam was constructed between 1960 and 1970, and had a significant impact on the economy and culture of Egypt. More details

19. W.A.C. Bennett Dam:

The W. A. C. Bennett Dam is a large hydroelectric dam on the Peace River in northern British Columbia, Canada. At 183 m (660 ft) high, it is one of the world’s highest earth fill dams. Construction of the dam began in 1961 and culminated in 1968. At the dam, the Finlay, the Parsnip and the Peace Rivers feed into Williston Lake, also referred to as Williston Reservoir. It is the third largest artificial lake in North America (after the Smallwood Reservoir and Manicouagan) as well as the largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Williston Lake runs 250 kilometers north-south and 150 kilometers east-west. More details

20. Afsluitdijk Dam:

The Afsluitdijk Dam is a major causeway in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1933 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich in Friesland province, over a length of 32 kilometres and a width of 90 m, at an initial height of 7.25 m above sea-level. More details

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